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EliteAristocracyOligarchyand Ruling class A symbolic image of three orders of feudal society in Europe prior to the French Revolutionwhich shows the rural third estate carrying the clergy and the nobility The upper class  is the social class composed of those who are richwell-born, powerful, or a combination of those.
They usually wield the greatest political power. In some countries, wealth alone is sufficient to allow entry into the upper class.
In others, only people who are born or marry into certain aristocratic bloodlines are considered members of the upper class and those who gain great wealth through commercial activity are looked down upon by the aristocracy as nouveau riche.
Many aristocratic peerages or titles have seats attached to them, with the holder of the title e. Earl of Bristol and his family being the custodians of the house, but not the owners.
Many of these require high expenditures, so wealth is typically needed. Many aristocratic peerages and their homes are parts of estates, owned and run by the title holder with moneys generated by the land, rents or other sources of wealth.
However, in the United States where there is no aristocracy or royalty, the upper class status belongs to the extremely wealthy, the so-called "super-rich", though there is some tendency even in the United States for those with old family wealth to look down on those who have earned their money in business, the struggle between New Money and Old Money.
The upper class is generally contained within the richest one or two percent of the population. Members of the upper class are often born into it and are distinguished by immense wealth which is passed from generation to generation in the form of estates. Middle classUpper middle classLower middle classand Bourgeoisie The middle class is the most contested of the three categories, the broad group of people in contemporary society who fall socio-economically between the lower and upper classes.
Middle-class workers are sometimes called " white-collar workers ". Theorists such as Ralf Dahrendorf have noted the tendency toward an enlarged middle class in modern Western societies, particularly in relation to the necessity of an educated work force in technological economies.
Precarity Lower class occasionally described as working class are those employed in low-paying wage jobs with very little economic security.
The term "lower class" also refers to persons with low income. The latter is analogous to the Marxist term " lumpenproletariat ".
Consequences of class position[ edit ] A person's socioeconomic class has wide-ranging effects. It can impact the schools they are able to attend, their health, the jobs open to them, who they may marry and their treatment by police and the courts.
There has been a growing number of suicides and deaths by substance abuse in this particular group of middle-class Americans. This group also has been recorded to have an increase in reports of chronic pain and poor general health. Deaton and Case came to the conclusion from these observation that because of the constant stress that these white, middle aged Americans feel fighting poverty and wavering between the lower and working class, these strains have taken a toll on these people and affected their whole bodies.
It is suggested that those of an upper social class are more likely to take part in sporting activities, whereas those of a lower social background are less likely to participate in sport. However, upper-class people tend to not take part in certain sports that have been commonly known to be linked with the lower class.
Not only are upper-class parents able to send their children to exclusive schools that are perceived to be better, but in many places state-supported schools for children of the upper class are of a much higher quality than those the state provides for children of the lower classes.
InBritish cultural theorist Paul Willis published a study titled "Learning to Labour" in which he investigated the connection between social class and education. In his study, he found that a group of working-class schoolchildren had developed an antipathy towards the acquisition of knowledge as being outside their class and therefore undesirable, perpetuating their presence in the working class.
Social determinants of health A person's social class has a significant impact on their physical health, their ability to receive adequate medical care and nutrition and their life expectancy. Lower-class families have higher rates of infant mortalitycancercardiovascular disease and disabling physical injuries.
Additionally, poor people tend to work in much more hazardous conditions, yet generally have much less if any health insurance provided for them, as compared to middle- and upper-class workers.
Those in the upper-middle class and middle class enjoy greater freedoms in their occupations. They are usually more respected, enjoy more diversity and are able to exhibit some authority.In this new and brilliantly organized book of essays, Anthony Giddens discusses three main theoretical traditions in social science that cut across the division between Marxist and non-Marxist sociology: interpretive sociology, functionalism, and structuralism.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
"Class" is a subject of analysis for sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists and social historians. A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".
Essays should present balanced arguments in support of the thesis while drawing upon relevant data to lend it empirical support. The Structure of a Social Science Essay. All essays require a clear introductory section setting forth the parameters of the topic and the way you intend to tackle it.
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The Philosophy of Social Science. The philosophy of social science can be described broadly as having two aims. First, it seeks to produce a rational reconstruction of social science.