Wilson's concern to set up an international organization to secure and maintain peace between nation-states was laid out in a number of speeches and public addresses before and after the United States entered World War I in April
On 8 Januaryin a major address to the U. Congress, he outlined his proposal to end the war and provide a framework for a new postwar international order. Of particular importance was his fourteenth point, which called for the establishment of an organization that would protect the independence and sovereignty of all nations.
Wilson certainly played an important role in the establishment of the League of Nations, even if the notion that he was its veritable "father" is exaggerated. Origins In a more general way the League of Nations was grounded in the League of nations factfile and fall of the practice of consultation among the European powers, which was increasingly formalized as the Concert of Europe after By the late nineteenth century the Concert of Europe was breaking down in the context of the rise of imperial Germany.
The emergence of the United States as an increasingly important player also weakened the balance of power on which the Concert of Europe League of nations factfile, as did the wider social and political changes in Europe itself.
However, the central idea of the Concert of Europe—that the Great Powers had particular rights and duties in international relations—underpinned the creation of the Council of the League of Nations. Despite the influence of the Concert of Europe, a more immediate and equally important catalyst for the League of Nations was World War I.
The war stimulated a general dissatisfaction with the management of inter-state relations and encouraged growing interest in a new international system of collective security.
In May Woodrow Wilson publicly spoke of the need to reform the international order. This gave the whole idea greater legitimacy and encouraged European political leaders to examine the idea.
This interest was further strengthened when the Russian Revolution of brought pressure to bear on the old international system. A number of draft versions of the constitution for the League of Nations were produced by the United States and by the European governments. The actual peace conference in focused on a draft produced jointly by the United States and Britain.
Establishment and Organization By there was general agreement that a League of Nations should be established. The key articles of the actual covenant constitution spelled out the role of the league in identifying and addressing threats to peace, the settlement of disputes, and the imposition of sanctions against states violating international agreements.
These articles occasioned limited disagreement. Participating nations also generally agreed that the league should be made up of an executive council, a deliberative assembly, and an administrative secretariat, but they disagreed over the exact function and makeup of these bodies.
In an early draft of the covenant, membership of the council was restricted to the Great Powers and any smaller nation-states that the Great Powers chose to invite. However, the formulation that eventually prevailed designated the Great Powers as permanent members of the council while small powers had nonpermanent membership.
The operation and membership of the assembly, which was the model for the General Assembly of the United Nations afterwas also a subject of some debate. In fact its overall operation and significance was really only worked out in subsequent years. The administrative secretariat, set up as a coordinating and administrative body, was a less divisive issue.
Its power was grounded entirely in the council and the assembly. The headquarters of the league were in Geneva, Switzerland, where the secretariat prepared reports and agendas. The assembly, which was made up of representatives of all the member governments, set policy and met on an annual basis.
Britain, France, Italy, and Japan held permanent membership in the council, which met more regularly than the assembly. It had been expected that the United States would be the fifth permanent member of the council. At the same time, the assembly elected another four eventually nine temporary members to the council to serve three-year terms.
All decisions taken by the council and the assembly had to be unanimous if they were to be binding. The league also included a number of subsidiary organizations. It was hoped that the ILO would appease some of the more radical tendencies within the trade union movement in various parts of the world and curtail the attractions of international communism.
A Permanent Court of International Justice was also set up, as well as a range of commissions that dealt with issues such as refugees, health, drugs, and child welfare. At the time of its foundation in the league had forty-two member governments.
This increased to fifty-five by ; however, the failure of the United States to become a member contributed significantly to the decline of the organization by the s.
Meanwhile, Germany only became a member in and withdrew inwhile the Soviet Union was only a member from to The Japanese government departed inand the Italian government ended its association with the league in Operations and Activities The prevention and settlement of disputes between nation-states in order to avoid another conflagration like World War I was central to the operations and activities of the league.
Although it did not have a military force of its own, the league prevented or settled a number of conflicts and disputes in the s. In fact, it was the activities of the league in the s that made it appear to many people that it had some long-term prospects for success.
The league played a major role in the resolution of a dispute over the Aaland Islands between the governments of Finland and Sweden.
In it got the Greek government to withdraw from Bulgaria and resolved a border dispute between the governments of Turkey and Iraq. During its entire history, none of the disputes that the league successfully resolved affected the interests of the Great Powers. It is generally argued that the limitations of the league were manifested most obviously in the Manchurian crisis of the early s.The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One.
The League of Nation’s task was simple – to ensure that war never broke out again. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty, many looked to the League to bring stability to the world. America entered World War One in League of Nations: Fact file After the end of the Great War (WW1) the League of Nations was established with the aim to end warfare throughout the world.
The idea was suggested by the American President Woodrow Wilson, in his 14 point plan. The League of Nations was established at the end of World War I as an international peacekeeping organization.
Although US President Woodrow Wilson was an enthusiastic proponent of the League, the United States did not officially join the League of Nations due to opposition from isolationists in Congress.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations [la sɔsjete de nɑsjɔ̃] abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the Capital: Geneva, Switzerland.
The League of Nations was approved, however, and in the summer of Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the U.S.
Senate for ratification. While the League of Nations was eventually dissolved, it formed an important basis for another important global organization, the United Nations. Whether the League’s success, or failure, dominated its historic record, it cannot be denied that in the quest for peace, the .